Shift and deformation of the tectonic plates can be detected significantly
Vienna (TU). – On 27 February 2010, one of the strongest earthquakes of recent decades (magnitude 8.8) destroyed large parts of Chile's third-largest city Concepción and its surrounding area (see Image 1). At a central location, experts from the TU Vienna Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics have contributed to the important geodetic measurements that were carried out both before and after the earthquake. Highly precise geodetic measurements play an important role in geodesy (the measurement of the earth), in order to observe natural disasters and examine their causes. The measurements make it possible to determine with great accuracy the deformations in the earth's crust and the shifting of the tectonic plates. The GPS station in Concepción, which continued to operate without problems both during and after the earthquake, measured a shift of nearly 3 metres to the west (see Image 2). The movement vectors in this image indicate that the entire South American plate has not just "wandered over" to the west, but was instead "pulled apart".
"Observations using the radio telescope in Concepción will provide further important information on plate movement using the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) process," speculates Dr Johannes Böhm, Head of the VLBI group at the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics. Image 3 shows the radio telescope, which fortunately was hardly affected by the earthquake, and the TU Vienna working group. Current VLBI analyses at the institute confirm the suspected shift of approximately 3 metres to the west and 0.65 metres to the south (Image 4).
Effects on the Earth's rotation: days are becoming longer
Experts suspect that the earthquake has also influenced the Earth's rotation. The shift of mass within the Earth's crust, caused by the earthquake, is affecting both the rotational speed of the Earth and the direction of the axis of rotation, which contributes to polar motion. Using data about the magnitude of the earthquake and the deformations caused by it, the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics is in the meantime determining the effects of the earthquake on the Earth's rotation.
First results indicate that the rotational speed of the earth has become marginally slower and days have become longer by 0.3 microseconds. In the coming months, polar motion will deviate by approx. 2.6 milliarcseconds, which corresponds with 7 cm on the Earth's surface, due to the earthquake in Chile. Dr Harald Schuh, Head of the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics at TU Vienna and President of Commission 19 "Rotation of the Earth" within the International Astronomical Union (IAU), confirms that "evidence that suggests a sudden shift of the Earth's axis of rotation is not correct, according to these results."
Observations which were carried out using global navigation satellite systems, such as the American GPS or the Russian Glonass, or using the VLBI technique are currently being analysed to confirm the earthquake's effects on the Earth's rotation. "This is not a simple task, as there are countless other factors that influence the Earth's rotation besides the earthquake, such as strong winds or ocean tides," stresses Dr Tobias Nilsson, who is responsible for the corresponding work on the simulation model. Using modern geodetic measuring techniques, the geodesists' research will help improve the prediction of natural disasters and the possibilities of warning of these disasters shortly before they occur.
- The Earthquake in Chile on 27 February 2010: earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2010/us2010tfan/
- Transportable Integrated Geodetic Observatory (TIGO) in Concepción, Chile: www.tigo.cl
- International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry IVS: ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov
- International Astronomical Union, Commission 19 (C19) "Rotation of the Earth": www.iau.org/science/scientific_bodies/commissions/19/
For more information, please contact:
Vienna University of Technology
Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics
Gußhausstraße 25-29, 1040 Vienna, Austria
Dr Harald Schuh
T: +43 (1) 58801 - 128 60
Head of the Institute
Dr. Johannes Böhm
T: +43 (1) 58801 - 128 64
Dr Tobias Nilsson, project assistant
T: +43 (1) 58801 - 128 49
Vienna University of Technology
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1040 Vienna, Austria
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