What should those affected and people close to them do?
Superiors are obliged to protect employees from harassment and take measures against harassment, when it is too late for preventative measures.
Those affected should try to protect themselves, document all offensive acts, and seek out the appropriate kind of support.
Persons close to those affected, such as colleagues or persons of trust outside their immediate vicinity, can help by talking and listening in an atmosphere of trust and support, possibly coupled with their willingness and ability to act as witnesses.
Those affected AND witnesses, informants as well as persons of trust involved in procedures dealing with sexual harassment / violence are under special protection according to the Equal Treatment Act, and must therefore not be discriminated against on grounds of their involvement or solidarity: prohibition of discrimination pursuant to §20b Federal Equal Treatment Act (§20b B-GlBG)., opens an external URL
The most important question in connection with (hitherto) taboo issues, such as sexual harassment (possibly coupled with bullying), is: What to do?
Member of TU Wien (or a university in general) can do their best to contribute proactively to a humane workplace and study climate.
Cooperative Behaviour and Anti-Discrimination in the Workplace is the foundation for fruitful collaboration – irrespective of our role as colleagues, superiors, subordinates, employees working on individual projects, students, teachers, researchers, administrators, or as technical staff members, apprentices, or professors emeriti.
LANGUAGE and BEHAVIOUR should be respectful and appropriate.
Those who use appropriate and neutral language and speak of others in a respectful manner help to prevent a workplace culture that tolerates offensive jokes and act as role models for cooperative behaviour and anti-discrimination in the Workplace. Those who conduct themselves in a professional manner, who do not mistake friendliness for intrusiveness, and who respect social and intellectual boundaries and interact at an appropriate physical distance, contributes to an environment where crossing these boundaries stands out and is not seen as normal.
In situations were the appropriate distance is unclear because of unfamiliar or very confined spaces or when meeting new people (with mutually unfamiliar cultural or religious backgrounds or habits), it is important to be especially observant and alert.
Often, a key question is: How can I address sexual harassment (in an appropriate manner)?
Sexual harassment at universities does not differ from sexual harassment in public, in private, or in other professional settings.
Since in education and research the prevailing behavioural patterns are different from other professions or leisure settings, these situations seem to be different at first sight, but can also be characterized by the typical displays of dominant behaviour when looked upon more closely. At universities – just like anywhere else – verbal and/or physical and/or visual and/or virtual boundaries in a sexual or gender-related nature are violated. These violations can lead to instances of discrimination that can traumatize those affected, and each person affected experience it differently. Common to all forms of sexually motivated (or sexist) harassment is that boundaries are crossed at a level that goes beyond the day-to-day communication in administration/research/teaching/learning/development/ management/etc.
Thus, we need different words than those we use in communication about (technical) knowledge. In particular, it is often unclear, whether a particular misdemeanor (neglect of duty) falls under criminal law or whether help should be sought at TU Wien.
Please refer to the GLOSSAR, opens a file in a new window for the key terms in the field (to be extended).
Example of a possible Structural Typology:
In which forms can sexual harassment occur?
- Verbal harassment: harm inflicted by language:
Comments, sounds (whistling), jokes, unsolicited judgments about physical appearance/fitness/health etc., belittling, and ridiculing in writing or directly audible.
- Physical and non-verbal harassment: harm inflicted physically:
Gestures, facial expressions, physical contact or almost-contact, cornering, suggestive gestures, unwanted (sexual) contact or forced contact;
- Visual harassment: harm inflicted by the visual:
Posters, images, movies, videos, screensavers, nudity, spying and tools for spying;
- Acoustic harassment: harm inflicted by sounds:
non-verbal (but socially unmistakably defined) sounds and acoustic elements that are produced or reproduced by means of technology: Whistling, tongue-clicking, producing emotionally loaded, inappropriate sounds, playing offensive music/songs, sexually suggestive sounds, bodily sounds, martial sounds or sounds representative of violence, permanent (low-level) noise;
- Online harassment: electronically mediated harm:
inappropriate communication via phone, e-mail, text, voice-over-Internet, online forums, social media, or Web as verbal, acoustic, or verbal-visual/acoustic harassment by producing sounds/images/words or by playing inappropriate files
Fundamental definition in § 8 (1) B-GlBG:, opens an external URL
Sexual harassment is a form of discrimination on the ground of gender, if
- an employee is sexually harassed,
- an employee is discriminated against by a representative [..]who in case of sexual harassment by third parties culpably fails to take appropriate remedial action
- an employee is sexually harassed by a third party.
§ 8 (2) B-GlBG stipulates: Sexual harassment shall be taken to have occurred, if
a person is exposed to conduct related to the sexual sphere that violates the dignity of such person or is intended to do so, is undesirable, inappropriate, degrading or offensive for the person affected, and
- creates an intimidating, hostile or humiliating work environment for the person affected or is intended to do so, or
- a person’s rejection of, or submission to, conduct related to the sexual sphere is expressly or tacitly used as a basis for a decision affecting this person’s access to further education, employment, continuation of employment, promotion or remuneration, or training.
AND § 8 (3) B-GlBG, opens an external URL makes it clear that:
An instruction to engage in sexual harassment shall also betaken to be discrimination
Furthermore, § 8a B-GlBG, opens an external URL defines gender-related harassment (see above) as discrimination analogously to sexual harassment.
§ 19 B-GlBG stipulates the legal consequences of harassment under § 8 and § 8a regarding claims for damages.
The burden of proof is, pursuant to § 20a B-GlBG,, opens an external URL carried by the inculpated person, not by the person affected.
§ 20b B-GlBG, opens an external URL regulates the prohibition of any disadvantages accruing to those affected as well as to witnesses, and people offering information and support to those affected in connection with complaints of sexual harassment.
Since § 41 B-GlBG, opens an external URL regulates the application of the B-GlBG for universities, the above paragraphs apply analogously to students, which is explicitly regulated by § 42 B-GlBG,, opens an external URL in particular para. 2.
According to the Universities Act, the application of the regulations under the B-GlBG at universities is regulated under § 44 UG, opens an external URL;
this is specified in detail under § 20b UG , opens an external URLregarding the Career Advancement plan for Women to be approved and the Equal Opportunities Plan to be approved at the university, and is also specified for the orientation phase for students under § 66 (3) UG., opens an external URL
II - Regulations at/of TU Wien:
The Career Advancement Plan for Women at TU Wien, opens an external URL (part of the statute) defines in Part G under § 48 measures against sexual harassment, harassment and bullying for the protection of dignity in the workplace.
The Works Council Agreement on Cooperative Behaviour and Anti-Discrimination the Workplace, opens an external URL (DE) defines in particular the term 'sexual harassment' under item 4 (4) and the right of appeal under item 5 (1) and lists the contact points for those affected as well as witnesses.
At TU Wien:
Which bodies at TU Wien are legally entitled to support affected members of TU Wien?