Optimized metal forming through modeling of friction processes
In the context metalworking and bulk forming operations, the rolling process is characterized by a squeezing type of deformation accomplished by rotating rolls. Friction between the work rolls and the workpiece is a fundamental aspect of the process, since the friction forces move the workpiece through the roll bite, besides affecting the workpiece surface quality and the tool life. Thus, accurate prediction of friction in rolling processes can lead to an optimized metal forming operation and reduce energy consumption.
In order to have a reliable prediction of friction, the real contact area needs to be predicted at the interface. Thus, the material deformation behaviour needs to be accurately described. The construction of material models with the aid of experiments such as high temperature hardness and scratch tests are indispensable to describe the material in terms of deformation, time, and temperature across length scales. Measurements of roll topographies by means of optical instruments and computational approaches to represent the measurements allow the material properties and topographical features to be brought together. Additionally, rheological properties of lubricants used and investigations of lubricant phenomena taking place in such a contact also play a role in the contact model.
Overall, a combination of computational and experimental methods is useful for the consideration and representation of the several phenomena taking place in the complex tribosystem of hot rolling.