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Accuracy: For many substances, vapor pressures are only poorly known; expect errors up to a few 10% of the vapor pressure value. Errors can be much larger for very low vapor pressures, but also for high temperatures (up to approx. 10% of the temperature at high temperatures).

Note that for some substances, data are calculated only for the liquid state (Se, Bi, most organics) or only for the solid state (noble gases Ne-Xe, methane, I).

*   Gas density in atoms or molecules per volume, assuming a monatomic gas unless the substance is given as molecule.
** Evaporation/sublimation rates assume evaporation/sublimation into vacuum, a sticking coefficient (accommodation coefficient) of unity (not valid for, e.g., graphite), and a monatomic gas (unless the substance is given as molecule). Results will be inaccurate if there is a high fraction of dimers, trimers (or other molecules than given) in the vapor. Erosion rates (evaporation/sublimation rates converted to removal of material) are also inaccurate because the density of the solid phase is assumed to be independent of temperature. Evaporation/sublimation rates are  only shown for vapor pressures below 1 Pa. (At high pressures, scattering in the gas phase leads to redeposition of scattered atoms/molecules; the pressure limit for this effect depends on the geometry and may be far below 1 Pa for objects much larger than 1 cm.)

Data sources: Most metals use the fits from C.B. Alcock, V.P. Itkin, M.K. Horrigan, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 23, 309 (1984), doi:10.1179/cmq.1984.23.3.309, opens an external URL in a new window. When these data were not available or considered unreliable, fits to values from the wikipedia table, opens an external URL in a new window, the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (78th edition, 1997, CRC press) and other sources were used. Si and Fe data from P.D. Desai, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 15, 967 (1986); Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt data based on J. W. Arblaster, Platinum Metals Rev. 51, 130 (2007). Data for liquid H2O based on a fit to the ITS-90 table supplemented with a few points up to 1 MPa.

Copyright © by Michael Schmid, IAP/TU Wien Surface Physics Group 2013–2024. No warranty for correctness of results.